Three other former officers on the scene that day - Thomas Lane, J. Alexander Kueng and Tou Thao - have been charged federally in connection with Floyd's death. Chauvin, Thao, Kueng and the fourth officer, Thomas Lane, all face a charge for failing to give Floyd medical aid.
Chauvin, Thao, and Kueng are charged with violating Floyd's right to be free from unreasonable seizure and unreasonable force by a police officer.
Chauvin has been accused of depriving Floyd of his constitutional right, while Thao and Kueng were charged with failing to intervene to stop Chauvin's use of unreasonable force. All four are charged for their failure to provide Floyd with medical care.
The video of Floyd, who was Black, pleading for his life and crying for his late mother reverberated around the globe, as people who watched it took to the streets in the summer of 2020 to protest police brutality and racial injustice.
Chauvin also faces a separate federal indictment related to a 2017 incident where he allegedly used a neck restraint "without legal justification" on a 14-year-old and beat the teenager in the head with a flashlight. They were allowed to remain free after Friday's federal court appearance.
Chauvin, 45, was convicted of murder and manslaughter last month for his role in the 25 May, 2020 death of Floyd, a 46-year-old Black man.
The three other officers involved in Floyd's death are awaiting trial.
The three former officers appeared with their attorneys in federal court Friday via video conference, and all three were released on $25,000 bond.
"Chauvin held his left knee across George Floyd's neck, and his right knee on Floyd's back and arm, as George Floyd lay on the ground, handcuffed and unresisting, and kept his knees on Floyd's neck and body even after Floyd became unresponsive", the indictment said.
Kueng and Lane also helped restrain Floyd - state prosecutors have said Kueng knelt on Floyd's back and Lane held down Floyd's legs.
Brandon Mitchell is one of 12 jurors who convicted Chauvin in the murder of George Floyd. Chauvin has moved for a new trial, citing alleged jury misconduct and pretrial publicity.
CNN has reached out to the Minneapolis Police Department and the city's police union for comment on the federal charges against the former officers.
The Justice Department in a statement Friday noted the charges were separate from its recently announced and still ongoing civil "pattern or practice" investigation looking into the policing practices of the entire Minneapolis Police Department.
To bring federal charges in deaths involving police, prosecutors must believe that an officer acted under the "color of law", or government authority, and willfully deprived someone of his or her constitutional rights, including the right to be free from unreasonable seizures or the use of unreasonable force.
Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison says the federal prosecution "is entirely appropriate".
Chauvin is to be sentenced on 25 June and faces up to 40 years in prison on the most serious charge -second-degree murder.
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Osler said the guidelines clearly state that any federal sentence would be served at the same time as a state sentence - the sentences wouldn't stack. The youth was bleeding from the ear and needed two stitches.
The Star-Tribune first reported on April 29 that federal prosecutors planned to ask a grand jury to indict the men on charges of civil rights violations.
The case is yet another demonstration of the Biden administration's emphasis on civil rights.