The U.S. has been threatening to impose additional restrictions on Russian Federation for months to punish the Kremlin for a litany of transgressions in recent years.
The compromise of the SolarWinds IT services firm - discovered last December - is thought to represent one of the most serious cyber espionage attacks suffered by the US.
Among the individual companies sanctioned were websites that US officials say operate as fronts for Russian intelligence agencies and spread disinformation, including articles alleging widespread voter fraud in 2020.
Russian hackers are believed to have infected its widely used Orion software with a malicious code enabling them to access the systems of at least nine USA agencies and 18,000 organisations worldwide, including North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the European Parliament.
Last month, USA intelligence officials accused Russian Federation of trying to help former president Donald Trump's reelection campaign.
Past sanctions by the United States have failed to bring an end to Russian cyber hacking.
The Treasury also blacklisted 32 entities and individuals that it said had carried out Russian government-directed attempts to influence the 2020 presidential election and other "acts of disinformation and interference". Eight have ties to Russia's occupation of Crimea.
According to the executive order, the United States is expelling ten personnel from the Russian diplomatic mission in Washington, DC.
'The UK and United States are calling out Russia's malicious behaviour, to enable our worldwide partners and businesses at home to better defend and prepare themselves against this kind of action.
The UK Government is deeply concerned about a pattern of malign behaviour by the Russian State. Russia's Central Bank has ordered to close all exchange booths outside banks starting October 1, 2010.
Vladimir Putin has been accused of sponsoring cyber attacks against the West Credit GETTY IMAGES
"These actions are meant to hold Russian Federation to account for its reckless actions".
Global Affairs Canada on Thursday issued a statement on the SolarWinds breach and what it called "other Russian state-sponsored actors' history of disruptive and destabilizing cyber activities".
After the sanctions were announced, Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova warned that "such aggressive behaviour will undoubtedly trigger a resolute retaliation".
She said the foreign ministry had summoned the USA ambassador for a "hard conversation" but gave no further details of what actions would follow.
The White House also said President Joe Biden was using diplomatic, military and intelligence channels to respond to reports that Russian Federation encouraged the Taliban to attack USA and allied troops in Afghanistan based on the "best assessments" of the intelligence community. Trump disputed the legitimacy of intelligence reports that Russian Federation may have been offering bounties to Taliban fighters. The sanctions are certain to exacerbate tensions with Russian Federation, which promised a retaliatory response. But they are certain to exacerbate an already tense relationship between the USA and Russian Federation.
The two leaders had a second tense call this week in which Biden told Putin to "de-escalate tensions" following a Russian military buildup on Ukraine's border, and said the US would "act firmly in defense of its national interests" regarding Russian intrusions and election interference.
The White House is announcing the expulsion of 10 Russian diplomats and announcing a new round of sanctions against Russia.
"When I spoke to President Putin, I expressed my belief that communication between the two of us personally and directly, was to be essential in moving forward to a more effective relationship", Biden said during a Thursday press conference. "I was clear with President Putin that we could have gone further, but I chose not to do so".
The statement also called out Russia's extraterritorial "targeting" of dissidents and journalists and undermining of security in countries important to USA national security. "I chose to be proportionate", Biden said, referring to the punitive actions against Russian Federation that he authorized. Last month, the US sanctioned seven Russian officials and several government groups for the nerve-agent attack and imprisonment of opposition leader Alexei Navalny.
Hai Do adapted this report for VOA Learning English from AP and Reuters stories.