Chancellor Rishi Sunak said: "These past months have underlined what we always knew - that our public sector workers make a vital contribution to our country and that we can rely on them when we need them".
The Treasury noted that one million NHS workers on Agenda for Change contracts will continue to benefit from those pay rises, and said a nurse still moving up their pay structures would receive an average pay increase of 4.4% this year.
Federations said the wage increases reduced poverty in parallel to the real-term declines seen over a decade.
He warned that it was "vital" that public sector pay awards took account of an economy on its knees due to Covid-18 and contrasted public sector pay - up 3.7pc on a year ago in the three months to May - with the fall of 1.2pc suffered by the private sector.
He said this while launching the 2020 comprehensive spending review, which is to be published in the autumn.
However nurses and healthcare assistants have not been included in the announcement - with industry bodies labelling it an "unjustifiable snub".
Although, nurses - now on a three-year pay deal - are not covered by the latest rises, the government says that many of them will receive an average pay increase of 4.4% this year.
Not all settlements will be UK-wide.
Almost 900,000 public sector workers including teachers, doctors, police and prison officers will see their pay increase by up to 3.1%.
Police, prison officers and National Crime Agency staff in England and Wales will be given a 2.5 per cent rise, while members of the armed forces will get 2 per cent. Members of the judiciary and senior civil servants will also see their pay increase by 2 per cent.
Making the announcement Mr Sunak said he recognised the "vital contributions" of public-sector workers to Britain.
Shadow chancellor Anneliese Dodds said the pay rise did not make up for seven years of public-sector pay freezes or the decade of real-terms pay cuts for many front-line workers.
But many nurses feel that their work during the coronavirus crisis is not being valued, with many people voicing their disappointment on social media and highlighting a feeling of betrayal especially in light of the "Clap for Carers" initiative, which encouraged people to applaud NHS staff from their homes on a Thursday evening during the height of the pandemic.
The government is to give 900,000 public sector workers in the United Kingdom a 2%-3.1% pay rise to recognise them for their efforts during the Covid-19 (Coronavirus) pandemic.
This stance was criticised by Labour MP Clive Lewis, who said: "Everyone apart from this government understands we all owe so much to everyone who has worked on the frontline during this pandemic".
Ms O'Grady added: "The government should urgently announce a pay rise for social care workers".
Kit Malthouse, the crime and policing minister, said the vast majority of social care workers were employed in the private sector so the government's "ability to influence pay rates there is limited".
But others, including social care and council workers, won't receive an extra penny while doctors and teaching unions said they had hoped for better.