The etiologic agent, a novel coronavirus now called SARS-CoV-2, was identified and characterized in China and the disease is now called COVID-19.
In addition to Andersen, authors on the paper, "The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2", include Robert F. Garry, of Tulane University; Edward Holmes, of the University of Sydney; Andrew Rambaut, of University of Edinburgh; W. Ian Lipkin, of Columbia University.
Remember that there are many coronaviruses. Here's how long the book coronavirus can survive out of their body in each Circumstance, according to their evaluations:Air: 3 hoursPlastic: Up to 72 hours stainless Steel: Up to 72 hours copper: Up to 4-hour cardboard: Up to 24 dayThe researchers said that although the virus may live up to three times on steel, it has a more half-life and is secure on plastic. So was the SARS epidemic that Saudi Arabia had to fight in 2012.
The new coronavirus has spread rapidly in many parts of the world.
As COVID-19 continues to grow exponentially around the nation, becoming infected nearly seems inevitable. The virus has killed over 6,600 people.
According to the scientists, the RBD associated with the novel coronavirus is an apparently "unique effect of natural selection", a mutation that took place either in a bat, or in a human being once it was transmitted, or inside a different, intermediate animal host whose ACE2 receptor is similar to that of humans.
Researchers at the Scripps Research Institute focused on revealing properties of the coronavirus.
The scientists analyzed the genetic template for spike proteins, armatures on the outside of the virus that it uses to grab and penetrate the outer walls of human and animal cells.
The new study also finds that plastic and stainless steel surfaces are the most conducive for the virus to survive.
These findings indicate those with SARS-CoV-1, where these forms of transmission were correlated with super-spreading events and nosocomial spread, plus they provide advice for pandemic mitigation attempts. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was so effective at binding the human cells, in fact, that the scientists concluded it was the result of natural selection and not the product of genetic engineering.
Another piece of evidence supporting a natural origin for the virus comes from what the researchers called the "backbone" of SARS-CoV-2 - its basic molecular structure. If someone were seeking to engineer a new coronavirus as a pathogen, they would have constructed it from the backbone of a virus known to cause illness. The most recently discovered coronavirus is named as SARS-CoV-2 or coronavirus 2.
However, according to the head of the research team, immunologist and microbiologist Kristian Andersen, PhD of Scripps Research in the United States of America, the specific mutation in the RBD protein and its different molecular structure rule out the possibility that the virus is of "artificial" origin. They can not be the product of genetic engineering. The team also described two possible origins of the novel coronavirus.
A second scenario posits that a non-pathogenic version of the virus crossed from an animal host into humans and only then became harmful once it mutated inside a human. That means the infection has not come from more than one source.
However, it remains unclear exactly how the virus first spread to humans.
However, in another scenario, the evolution of the illness-triggering RBD mechanism may have occurred only after SARS-CoV-2 infected humans. A coronavirus from a pangolin could possibly have been transmitted to a human, either directly or through an intermediary host such as civets or ferrets. Experts recommend and urge patients who demonstrate symptoms to first call either an urgent care center or a local hospital before deciding to make the trip in. These people may experience mild, flu-like symptoms.
According to Andersen's team, like SARS and MERS, SARS-CoV-2 probably evolved in another animal and mutated along the way to make the jump into people.
Study co-author Andrew Rambaut cautioned that it is hard if not impossible to know at this point which of the scenarios is most likely. They belong to a family of viruses that can cause diseases of varying severity.