Nearly all Democrats voted to block the short-term bill that would have sustained federal funding at current levels, called a continuing resolution (CR), citing the fact that the measure did not include a solution for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration program.
Now as lawmakers work to reach a deal, hundreds of thousands of government employees are furloughed, meaning they will not be able to report to work not will they receive pay.
McConnell also referenced that the bill includes six years of funding for a health insurance program for children from low-income families.
"The government shutdown was 100 percent avoidable", McConnell said on the Senate floor afterward.
"Not looking good for our great Military or Safety & Security on the very unsafe Southern Border".
Trump seemed to revel in the high-stakes brinksmanship unfolding in Washington, with Senate passage of a government funding extension that was pushed through the House of Representatives on Thursday up in the air. Sens. Lindsey Graham and Mike Lee voted against due to concerns about the adequacy of another CR in funding the government.
Republicans controlling the narrowly split chamber took up the fight, arguing that Democrats were holding the entire government hostage over demands to protect "dreamer" immigrants brought to the country illegally as children. The parks were closed during the last shutdown in 2013, upsetting many tourists and resulting in the loss of $500m (£361m) in visitor spending in areas around the parks and at the Smithsonian museums. Theoretically, a majority of Republicans could have gotten behind the plan and Democrats could have "blocked" it.
Democrats wanted to force through protections from deportation for 700,000 "dreamers" who had previously been covered by the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (Daca) programme.
Schumer says Trump didn't try selling the accord to congressional Republican leaders, who wouldn't accept it. Schumer says Trump "backed off at the first sign of pressure".
Schumer met with Trump on Friday afternoon and later said he had reluctantly agreed to include the border wall in the negotiations but that it still was not enough to persuade Trump to find a compromise.
But most federal workers will not be paid.
The Salem Democrat also shared that after the vote failed to pass, he was approached by a janitor collecting trash in the congressman's office, asking if a shutdown had been averted.