Now as lawmakers work to reach a deal, hundreds of thousands of government employees are furloughed, meaning they will not be able to report to work not will they receive pay.
Essential operations of the government, including the military, still function during a shutdown.
"Our families and troops deserve to be put first, and Senate Democrats must stop their hostage tactics and do the right thing by voting to keep our government open".
While Schumer placed the blame at Trump's feet, the White House fired back and pinned the shutdown on the Democrats.
Congress scheduled an unusual Saturday session to begin considering a three-week version of the short-term spending measure.
The last government shutdown in 2013 caused $24 billion United States dollars in lost economic activity.
The meeting was held at the request of Trump as part of his efforts to reach a deal with Democrats on at least a short-term extension of government funding, which needs Congressional approval and the current authorisation ends today.
The bill, already passed by the House of Representatives on Thursday on largely party lines, will fund the government running through February 16.
Democrats have demanded the bill include protections from deportation for 700,000 young undocumented immigrants.
House Speaker Paul Ryan added that "Senate Democrats are the only ones standing in the way of a fully funded government and a reauthorized health insurance program for children". And it's true that Democrats see a political opportunity in the wake of the president's alleged comments at a White House immigration meeting last week.
Trump's unpredictable Twitter outbursts and sudden changes of position also have bedeviled Republican leaders as they manoeuvre to cut a deal.
USA troops will stay at their posts and mail will get delivered, but nearly half of the 2 million civilian workers will be barred from doing their jobs if the shutdown extends into Monday.
Mr. Trump and White House Chief of Staff John Kelly were making phone calls late last night ahead of the looming shutdown, said a senior administration official, who declined to name who they were calling.