Some demonstrators threw fireworks and flares in response.
Officers avoided shooting the cannons directly at protesters because there were children in the crowd, and they worked slowly and methodically to disperse the crowd, Berlin police spokesman Thilo Cablitz said.
Due to the fact that the vast majority of the attendees neither wore masks nor kept the required physical safety distance between them, the police in the German capital had shortly ended the protest and ordered the attendees to disband.
The measures are expected to pass both the lower and then upper house of parliament and be quickly signed by Germany's president.
Health Minister Jens Spahn told parliament no one would be forced to be vaccinated and described the pandemic as a "once in a century phenomenon".
Germany, Europe's largest economy, was widely praised for keeping infection and death rates below those of many of its neighbours in the first phase of the crisis but is now in the midst of a second wave, like much of the rest of Europe. Fencing was put up around a wide area that included the Bundestag, nearby parliamentary offices, the federal chancellery and the presidential residence and offices.
Outside the metal cordons, protesters gathered early today by the Brandenburg Gate, and on streets and bridges.
More than 833,300 cases of COVID-19 have been registered in Germany since the start of the pandemic, including the 17,561 new positive tests registered on Wednesday, according to the country's Robert Koch Institute. Like most protests against coronavirus restrictions, the demonstrators came from all walks of life, ranging from the far-left to the far-right, while also including families, students and others. Another said "Put banks under surveillance, not citizens".
Demonstrators carried posters showing German political leaders including Chancellor Angela Merkel in prison garb and emblazoned with the word "guilty".
In online chatrooms, militant activists compared the government measures to the Enabling Act of 1933 which gave Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's government dictatorial powers.
Achim Ecker, a demonstrator in his 50s who travelled to Berlin from neighbouring Brandenburg state, said the government was exaggerating the dangers posed by the pandemic.
"Everyone, naturally, has the right to criticize the measures, our democracy thrives through the exchange of different opinions", he wrote on Twitter. "But whoever relativises or trivialises the Holocaust has learned nothing from our history".
Police detained 190 people while nine officers were injured.
"If that does not help, the only course that remains is to disperse the gathering", the department said on Twitter.
Earlier in November, at least 20,000 people had joined demonstrations in Leipzig against coronavirus restrictions.