Trump has often clashed with the findings of intelligence agencies.
Ratcliffe will take over the agency at a tumultuous time.
Ratcliffe, a Republican, was a US attorney and then mayor of Heath, Texas, before he came to the House in 2015.
Ratcliffe assumes the position as the country faces a wide range of security threats, including the coronavirus pandemic, stiff competition with China and the widespread expectation that Russian Federation is attempting to interfere in the 2020 United States election.
But Trump nominated him again this year after Ratcliffe's aggressive work defending the president when the House of Representatives impeached him last year.
Mr. Ratcliffe will replace acting DNI chief Richard Grenell, who was tapped to the top spy post in February. As acting director, he ordered a review of the DNI office that Trump's critics feared was an attempt to clean house.
Democrats said Ratcliffe was too partisan to ensure intelligence agencies would not be influenced by political concerns. The last Senate-confirmed director, former Indiana Sen.
Ratcliffe replaces former Director of National Intelligence (DNI) Dan Coats, a former USA senator who had good relationships with legislators but clashed with Trump.
Democrats allowed a quick vote on Ratcliffe's nomination, dropping their usual procedural delays in a signal that despite their skepticism, they prefer him in the job over Grenell.
Democrats said they were skeptical that Ratcliffe would be an independent leader, despite his assurances during his confirmation hearing.
Democrats opposed Ratcliffe's nomination when it was first submitted last summer and continued to oppose it as it moved through committee this week. "A risky combination", he said.
Before being elected to Congress in 2014, Ratcliffe was mayor of Heath, Texas, and a USA attorney in the Eastern District of Texas.
In Congress, Ratcliffe was an outspoken supporter of Trump, and at times questioned the validity of the Russian Federation investigation. But senators warmed to him as they grew concerned about upheaval in the intelligence community under Trump and wanted a permanent, confirmed director. Charles Schumer (D-NY) said President Donald Trump is promoting an "already discredited conspiracy" theory with his Obamagate tweets instead of focusing on the coronavirus pandemic.
Trump has also shown himself as eager to have intelligence agencies investigate matters that he hopes will support his political positions, with agencies now trying to determine whether the coronavirus pandemic emerged in a laboratory in China or from a market.
In addition, the DNI is encountering ongoing political pressure, including from Republicans in Congress, to declassify and make public information from the Russian Federation investigation that Trump allies hope will cast senior Obama administration officials - including former vice president and 2020 opponent Joe Biden - in a negative light.
Last week, for instance, Senate Republicans released a newly declassified list of former intelligence officials who requested the identity of an American from intelligence reports. On Thursday, the Judiciary Committee is set to consider issuing a subpoena in the investigation into Trump's former national security adviser Michael Flynn.
On Tuesday, Republicans released a January 2017 memo that Susan Rice, President Barack Obama's national security adviser, wrote to herself.
And there have been calls from Democrats, and Flynn's own lawyer, to release declassified transcripts of intercepted phone calls during the presidential transition period between Flynn and then-Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak. Flynn pleaded guilty to lying to the Federal Bureau of Investigation under oath.
"No lawyer for Flynn has ever seen it or heard the recording" of the call, Flynn's lawyer, Sidney Powell, said in an email to The Associated Press". "I would want both".