The 883-page measure is the largest economic relief bill in US history, and both parties' leaders were desperate for quick passage as the virus took lives and jobs by the hour.
The unanimous vote came despite misgivings on both sides about whether it goes too far or not far enough and capped days of hard negotiations as Washington confronted a national challenge unlike it has ever faced.
The 96-0 vote in the Senate means the bill will now move to the House of Representatives, which is expected to vote on Friday.
President Donald Trump has indicated he will sign the measure.
After five days of negotiations, Senate leaders and the Trump administration the White House said early Wednesday morning that Senate leaders and the Trump administration have reached a deal on a $2 trillion stimulus package to help relieve the economic impact of COVID-19.
"This is a wartime level of investment into our nation", said Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell after announcing the deal.
Legislative text of the final deal was released Wednesday evening ahead of a final vote. "And it will inject trillions of dollars of cash into the economy as fast as possible to help Americans workers, families, small businesses and industries make it through this disruption and emerge on the other side ready to soar".
Individual Americans will be eligible for $1,200 in direct payments and additional $500 payments per qualifying child as long as their annual income does not exceed $75,000 or $150,000 if a household files joint returns.
The bill includes $130bn in funding for hospitals and other health activities, and $200bn for other federal programmes, including $45bn for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), $25bn in grants to public transportation systems, $10bn in grants to airports, $31bn in grants to public education systems, $10bn in block grants to states, and $19bn in funding for the Veteran's Affairs (VA) Administration. Republicans were tepid about the package, but Trump endorsed it and it ultimately passed Congress with the support of 90% of lawmakers in both chambers.
Democrats had argued over the course of negotiations that they wanted to see more safeguards for American workers in the deal and oversight for how funding would be doled out.
The bill would also create a $367 billion loan program for small businesses. He told reporters that a nurse's aide making $15 an hour would not want to go back to work fighting the pandemic if they were laid off, given they could make $24 an hour on the new expanded unemployment benefits. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., on the floor of the Senate.
Antos said regardless of the amount of money going to certain corporations, "the idea behind the stimulus bill in general terms is to maintain people on payroll rather than have them apply for some kind of welfare payment", which could take an "unbelievable amount of time".
A vote to amend the bill to cap the unemployment benefits failed Wednesday night.
Legislation heads to the House next. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi is now emphasizing that Democrats should "recognize the good" in the massive stimulus. "But we believe the legislation has improved sufficiently to warrant its quick consideration and passage". "We (Congress) do have to do more, but that would be no reason to stop this step that we are taking", she told CNN.
Pelosi made it clear to members who are disappointed that the pending bill did not include enough of their priorities that they will have a chance to add those provisions in the fourth package, the sources said.
The outbreak has touched directly on Congress, where three lawmakers have reported testing positive for the coronavirus and several others are in self-quarantine.
However, any House member could demand a recorded, roll-call vote, which has potential to drag out the process.
A voice vote will be unrecorded, but members can still debate and enter their votes in the Congressional record.