Birgitte Kallestad, aged 24, was on a vacation with friends when they discovered the puppy on a street, according to her family.
The puppy is believed to have infected her when it bit her while they were playing, according to the BBC.
But it wasn't until Kallestad was back in Norway that she began to experience symptoms and visited the emergency room several times. By that time, some time had passed since her Philippines trip, and doctors had trouble diagnosing her illness.
After conducting tests, Sweden's Public Health Authorities confirmed on Saturday that Kallestad had rabies.
The Daily Mail reported that Kallestad's friends, who had been in contact with the dog, have been notified. "Our fear is that this will happen to others who have a warm heart like hers", her family said.
All of them sustained minor bites and scratches, which they sterilised and washed soon after. She died eight days after being admitted into the hospital where she worked.
"This is a disease that's endemic in 150 countries and it's a huge health problem", he said.
Norwegian officials say this is the first case of rabies reported in Norway in 200 years.
There is a vaccine for rabies, but in order to be effective, it must be given before symptoms appear.
Rabies is treatable, but if left untreated can cause a life-threatening infection of the brain and nervous system in humans.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the rabies virus is transmitted in the saliva of rabid animals.
More than 59,000 people worldwide die each year of the disease, which is preventable with a vaccine. Early signs of the disease include flu-like symptoms, such as general weakness, fever and headache, followed by more severe symptoms, including anxiety, confusion, hallucinations and insomnia.
"Decisions to start vaccination, known as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), will be based on your type of exposure and the animal you were exposed to, as well as laboratory and surveillance information for the geographic area where the exposure occurred", the CDC's website states.