It also does not determine whether these negative outcomes may have occurred prior to using e-cigarettes. "How much is due to co-incident use of regular cigarettes is not so clear, and further research would be needed to quantify further the overall level of use of traditional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes, as this analysis was not created to answer that question".
The associations held true even when controlling for other known cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and smoking.
Researchers in the United States have warned that using e-cigarettes significantly raises the risk of heart attacks.
"Regardless of how frequently someone uses e-cigarettes, daily or just on some days, they are still more likely to have a heart attack or coronary artery disease", Vindhyal added.
But taking into account the fact that people who were also regularly smoking tobacco had a 165 per cent increased heart attack risk, they calculated the increased isk of vaping alone dropped to about 34 per cent.
From a public health standpoint, "if there are going to be any interventions done to reduce e-cigarette use in our population, then I think we're going to have to look at those emotional problems that are concurrent with the use of e-cigarettes", commented ACC press briefing moderator Salim Virani, MD, PhD, of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston and chair of the ACC Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Council.
This study found that compared with nonusers, e-cigarette users were 56 percent more likely to have a heart attack and 30 percent more likely to suffer a stroke. The study conducted by a team from the University of Kansas in the USA showed that e-cigarette users were twice as likely to suffer from depression, anxiety and other emotional problems.
E-cigarettes have exploded in popularity, with sales increased 14-fold since 2007, according to the study.
E-cigarettes do not contain the cancer-causing products found in tobacco. "If you do smoke, quit now and consider using an e-cigarette to help you".
"Cigarette smoking carries a much higher probability of heart attack and stroke than e-cigarettes", Vindhyal said. "Stroke, high blood pressure and circulatory problems were no longer statistically different between the two groups".
Yet the latest study into the health implications of using e-cigarettes does not bode well.
Although the findings were not based on an in-depth cause-effect analysis, since the electronic cigarette users examined for the research were not long-term smokers as this kind of products have only become widespread in the last decade, Mohinder Vindhyal, the leading scholar in the research said that it will lead the way for further awareness. The College also provides professional medical education, disseminates cardiovascular research through its world-renowned JACC Journals, operates national registries to measure and improve care, and offers cardiovascular accreditation to hospitals and institutions.