As of February 13, a Macedonian official said, the new name will be incorporated on official road signs - starting with one on the border with Greece.
Prime Minister Zoran Zaev, speaking at a ceremony in the capital Skopje, said Macedonia had achieved a "historic goal" in being accepted into NATO under its new name, North Macedonia.
Since 1991, Athens had objected to its neighbor being called Macedonia because Greece has a historic northern province of the same name.
Foreign Minister Nikola Dimitrov said the move followed a final exchange of diplomatic notes with Greece. "We can't change our past, but we can and we will shape our future of friendship, partnership and cooperation".
Three other ex-Yugoslav republics - Slovenia, Croatia and Montenegro - have already joined North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, as have other countries in the Balkans including Albania, Bulgaria and Romania.
Greece had blocked membership because it saw the previous name as a threat to its own Macedonia region.
Despite opposition on either side of the border, the deal was ratified by both parliaments.
Under the provisions of the agreement with Athens, Macedonia's customs office must put stencils with the new name on road signs at all border crossings and also at the airports of Skopje and Ohrid within three days.
The small Balkans country changed its name from Macedonia on Tuesday.
Vehicle registration plates will also change, while passports and currency will be replaced over the coming years.
While North Macedonia is not yet officially a NATO member - officials signed an accession agreement last week in order to pave the way towards membership - it is still permitted to sit at the NATO table as a guest.
Just last Wednesday, NATO members signed the accession protocol alongside North Macedonia to launch its path to membership. Slovenia on Tuesday became the second country to do so after Greece, which made the move last week.