"The policy of systematic assimilation against the Uighur Turks carried out by the authorities of China is a great shame for humanity", foreign ministry spokesman Hami Aksoy said in a statement on Saturday.
Beijing has intensified a security clampdown on Uighurs in the north-western region of Xinjiang that was put in place after a bloody 2009 riot.
The Uyghurs tried to seek independence from China between 1930-40s.
"... A small number of separatists and religious extremists in Xinjiang, influenced by the global trend of religious extremism and national chauvinism, politicised the unstandardised geographical term "East Turkestan", and fabricated an "ideological and theoretical system" on the so-called "independence of East Turkestan" on the basis of the allegation cooked up by the old colonialists".
"This tragic incident has further strengthened the Turkish public's reaction to the serious human rights violations in Xinjiang Region", Aksoy said.
The comments from Turkey came after Uighur poet and musician Abdurehim Heyit died in custody in China.
"We expect this legitimate response to be taken into account by the Chinese authorities".
Turkey invites Chinese authorities to respect fundamental human rights of Uyghur Turks and shut down concentration camps, Aksoy said.
Turkey's foreign ministry said Abdurehim Heyit, a renowned singer and master of the dutar stringed instrument who was detained in 2017, died defending his "Turkish and Muslim identity".
His detention was considered indicative of China's determination to crack down on Uyghur intellectuals and cultural figures, which some say are attempts at cultural cleansing.
Mr Heyit's death could not be independently confirmed.
The Chinese embassy in Ankara called on Turkey to withdraw its "false accusations" in a statement, according to the Associated Press news agency. "We are opposed to maintaining double standards on the question of fighting terrorism", it said. Droves of Uighurs have fled, many traveling to Turkey, where the language and culture are similar to that in Xinjiang.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan had once accused China of "genocide" but has since established closer diplomatic and economic relations with Beijing.