That allegation has not been proven publicly and the company denies any link to China's government.
Orange Polska said in a statement the security agency had on Tuesday gathered materials related to an employee, whom it did not identify. Huawei and Orange could not immediately be reached for comment.
The U.S. criticism has led to a number of Western countries and companies to review whether they should allow Huawei's equipment to be used in their telecoms networks.
Spying, and working in concert with the Chinese government, are the two chief allegations several Western nations are leveling against Huawei, which recently overtook Apple as the world's second-largest smartphone manufacturer.
Along with the Chinese national, whose name has been reported as Weijinga W., the Polish counterintelligence service, the Internal Security Agency (ABW), arrested Polish national Piotr D., the ABW's own former employee, Polish broadcaster TVP reports.
The arrested pair will be held for three months, PAP reported, quoting a spokesperson for Polish security services.
"The Chinese individual is a businessman working for an important telecommunications firm", Maciej Wasik, deputy head of Poland's special services, said.
In December, Canadian authorities arrested a top Huawei executive, Meng Wanzhou, at the behest of USA authorities as part of an investigation into alleged violations of US trade sanctions, raising tensions with China at a time when Washington and Beijing are engaged in a broader trade war.
The agency did not immediately respond to Reuters' requests for a response to the reports.