The Yutu-2 (Jade Rabbit-2) rover drove onto the moon's surface from the lander at 10:22pm Thursday (1422 GMT), about 12 hours after the groundbreaking touchdown of the Chang'e-4 probe, the agency said.
No lander or rover has ever previously touched the surface of the far side of the moon, and it is no easy technological feat.
Wu Weiren, chief designer of the lunar exploration project, told the state broadcaster CCTV: "This giant leap is a decisive move for our exploration of space and the conquering of the universe".
So scientists call the area where a Chinese spacecraft just landed the far side, not the dark side.
The pioneering landing highlights China's ambitions to rival the U.S., Russian Federation and Europe in space.
Nevertheless, this is a significant step in China's bid to become a leading power in space exploration, alongside the United States and Russian Federation.
"The landing on the far side shows China's technology is powerful", said He Qisong, a space expert at the East China University of Science and Law in Shanghai.
"The Chang'e-4, carrying eight payloads, will conduct low-frequency radio astronomical observation, survey the terrain and landforms, detect the mineral composition and shallow lunar surface structure and measure the neutron radiation and neutral atoms to study the environment on the far side of the Moon".
Beijing is planning to send another lunar lander, Chang'e-5, later this year to collect samples and bring them back to Earth. It is popularly called the "dark side" because it can't be seen from Earth and is relatively unknown, not because it lacks sunlight.
During the final round, Yutu-2 stood out from nine other names in online voting and a special committee discussion.