Just as protests in Paris were starting to quiet down, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development released new research showing that France won first place in its ranking of wealthy countries by tax rate.
France overtook Denmark as the most taxed country in 2017 as government tax revenues in developed countries hit a record high, the OECD said, data which may do little to help President Emmanuel Macron placate protesters angered over living costs. Only Portugal exceeds Greece, with indirect taxes at 39.8% of the total tax revenue.
The OECD said the government tax take rose in 19 member countries previous year and fell in 16. The average tax-to-GDP ratio rose slightly to 34.2% in 2017 from 34% in 2016 and 33.8% in 2000.
Greece is also a leader in indirect taxation: The various levies on goods and services amounted to 15.4 percent of GDP a year ago, and to 39.1 percent of all tax revenues.
At the same time, in Germany, indirect taxes accounted for 26.2% of revenue past year, 29.1% in Spain, 24.4% of revenue in France and the eurozone.
Israel saw the biggest increase - 1.4 percentage points to 32.7 percent of GDP - due to a number of policy changes affecting taxes on income and profit.
The tax-to-GDP ratio rose in 19 of the 34 OECD countries that provided data for 2017, and the OECD average is higher than ever.
The hike in property taxation is more staggering: From around 600 million euros or 0.2 percent of GDP in 2010, revenues from property taxation had soared 516 percent - i.e. more than sixfold - by 2017 to reach 3.7 billion euros, or 2.1 percent of GDP. The latest data for 2017 shows real estate taxes six times over in absolute terms, at Euro 3.7 billion.