"Clinical guidelines should be changed to reflect these findings", said Bolland.
This is the largest meta-analysis to date, combining data from 81 randomised controlled trials, involving more 53,500 participants, with more than half the studies involving daily dosing.
There is little reason to continue prescribing vitamin D for bone health, because it doesn't prevent fractures, falls or improve bone density. The study was led by Dr. Mark J. Bolland, associate professor at the University of Auckland in New Zealand.
According to the editorial author, Professor Chris Gallagher, of Creighton University in the USA, those results are coming soon, with studies on nearly 100,000 participants now enrolled in randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation due to report within three years. Researchers reviewed trials to figure out the effects of the "sunshine vitamin".
"There is little justification to use vitamin D supplements to maintain or improve musculoskeletal health". The question why the vitamins work in vivo but not while taken as supplement is still widely open.
The best way to naturally get the ideal amount of vitamin D needed by the body to stay healthy through exposure to the sunlight.
It is also contained in a small number of foods, such as cod liver oil, offal, egg yolk and oily fish, including salmon and mackerel. It found that people who are not deficient will not likely see any benefits.
The Department of Health and Social Care now recommends that everyone should consider taking a vitamin D supplement during the winter months, based on advice from the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition given in 2016.
They were not talking about the effects of supplements in children and young people, she said, because there had not been trials.
They were also very clear, Prof Avenell said, that people who were never exposed to the sun because they covered themselves up or were institutionalised were at risk of vitamin D deficiency.