Space warfare capabilities are now overseen by the US Air Force.
"By 1945, the American military had almost 30 times the number of planes and 85 times the number of pilots and support crews compared to just six years earlier", he said.
"This new command structure for the physical domain of space led by a four-star flag officer will establish unified command and control for our space force operations, ensure integration across the military, and develop the war fighting doctrine tactics and techniques of the future", said Pence.
Mr Trump "knows that space is integral to our American way of life and economic prosperity and is a vital domain for national defence" while, under his direction, the U.S. is "reclaiming its heritage as the world's greatest space-faring nation", the White House said.
"Our adversaries already have transformed space into a war fighting domain and the United States will not shrink from this challenge".
He did, however, say the Pentagon was in "complete agreement" with the White House.
Trump said last week that he had ordered the Pentagon to begin the process of creating a Space Force as a new branch of the military. At that point, the subject of a service branch for space had already been the subject of hot debate within the military and Congress. Leaders of the Air Force, which now owns existing military operations regarding space, have argued that the service does not have the resources to support a separate space service.
In addition to a Space Operations Command, Pence described plans for a Space Development Agency that would harness innovation in the field and deter bureaucratic drag. "However, going forward there probably will need to be an increase in resources to buy improved capabilities and more warfighters as the Space Force matures".
Paul Scharre, a senior fellow at the Center for a New American Security, called a Space Force "a dumb idea", in an commentary on Defense One, which first reported some of the details of the plan.
The creation of a US Space Force reflects the drastically changed reality of space's role in national security.
Pence said that the Space Force would not be created from scratch, but rather re-organize existing space programs and personnel.
In 2007, China blew up a dead weather satellite with a missile, creating a massive debris cloud in orbit.
The US Armed Forces are made up of the five armed service branches: Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Navy. Only Congress has the authority to establish a new branch of the military-something that hasn't happened since the U.S. Air Force was founded in 1947. The US Space Force will become the sixth arm. "But history proves that peace only comes through strength", he added. "And in the realm of outer space, the United States Space Force will be that strength".