Understanding how the corona works will help scientists anticipate unsafe space weather storms, which can disrupt the power grid on Earth. "It's very important for us to be able to predict the weather in the same simple way we predict the weather on Earth", explains Alex Young, a NASA scientist.
Over the course of seven years, the probe will orbit the sun two dozen times.
Fifty years after first conceived, NASA is scheduled to begin its historic mission to "touch the sun".
The £1.2billion Solar Probe Plus expedition will dip inside the sun's atmosphere and have to survive unimaginable levels of radiation and temperatures of 1,400°C as it "touches the Sun" after a mind-boggling four million mile journey.
Mission managers say that may sound like a lot but is really quite a close shave, given the sweltering conditions out there.
Inside the Parker Solar Probe temperatures should stay around 30C.
Its mission is to help scientists unlock the mysteries of the sun's atmosphere and answer questions like why its corona, the outermost layer of the solar atmosphere, is hotter than its surface.
Temperatures in the corona are up to 500,000 degrees celsius and, for an unknown reason, far exceeds the heat of the sun's core.
Dr Nicky Fox, project scientist at the John Hopkins University said: "We've been studying the Sun for decades, and now we're finally going to go where the action is". The earth's average distance from the sun is 93 million miles. This allows for the shields, place on the back and front of the Parker Solar Probe, to be light while also meaning that there is not much material for heat to travel through allowing it to cool of quickly.
The probe will fly into the outer corona and is only able to get that close because of modern engineering, Garvin said.
The unmanned probe, over five decades in the making, will last almost seven years and pass through the corona 24 times. In order to withstand the tremendous heat and solar radiation, the Parker Solar Probe will be protected by a 4.5-inch-thick carbon composite shield.
According to NASA, PSP will carry four groups of instruments created to study magnetic fields, plasma and energetic particles and imagine the solar wind.
This NASA photo obtained August 1, 2018 shows the Parker Solar Probe one half of its 62.7-foot tall fairing, as the Parker Solar Probe was encapsulated on July 16, 2018, in preparation for the move from Astrotech Space Operations in Titusville, Florida, to Space Launch Complex 37 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where it will be integrated onto its launch vehicle for its launch that is targeted for August 11, 2018. Pictures of Corona will be taken through the spacecraft and the surface will be measured.
A 45-minute launch window opens on Saturday at 3:48am local time (1:18pm IST).