The Islamic States of Iraq and Syria's (ISIS) local affiliate claimed responsibility for the attack on its Amaaq News Agency website, claiming it had killed and wounded over 115 people.
An explosion has occurred near Kabul's global airport shortly after Afghan Vice President Rashid Dostum returned to the country after more than a year in exile, police has said.
"The blast was probably caused by a suicide bomber", Interior Ministry spokesman Najib Danish told AFP.
Dostum returned to Kabul after more than a year in self-imposed exile in Turkey amid claims that he had ordered his men to abduct, beat, and rape a political rival in 2017.
Haroon Chakansuri, a spokesman for Ghani, said Dostum had gone to Turkey for almost 14 months for unspecified medical treatment, and would return home on a chartered aircraft on Sunday and be given an official reception. The convoy was not affected by the explosion.
Much of the area around the presidential palace was shut down for the arrival and there was a heavy security presence on the streets, emphasising the increasingly volatile political climate in Kabul.
His return, which has been the subject of much speculation, comes amid violent protests in several provinces across northern Afghanistan, his traditional power base.
Ghani in 2009 described Dostum as a "known killer".
He denied Mr Eshchi's accusations but, amid global demands that he face justice to show that powerful political leaders were not above the law, he left the country in May past year, saying he needed to seek medical treatment in Turkey.
Observers say President Ashraf Ghani, an ethnic Pashtun, gave the green light for Dostum to come home to stabilise the north and secure Uzbek support before next year's presidential election, which he is widely expected to contest.
While in Turkey, he formed an alliance with two other powerful leaders, Atta Mohammad Noor, a major force among ethnic Tajiks and Mohammad Mohaqiq, a leader of the Hazara minority, both of whom joined him in Kabul on Sunday.
Chakhansuri deflected questions about whether Dostum would face charges over the incident, saying "the judiciary is an independent body, the government does not interfere in their decisions".
Once described by the U.S. State Department as a "quintessential warlord" Dostum has for years faced accusations of serious human rights abuses, including killing Taliban prisoners by leaving them in sealed cargo containers.