Rescuers and medics in Douma say more than 40 people died after a "poisonous chlorine gas attack" late Saturday in the last rebel-held pocket of Eastern Ghouta.
The renewed U.S. push to establish the United Nations Independent Mechanism of Investigation (UNIMI) comes after Russian Federation killed off a previous UN-led probe in November by vetoing the renewal of its mandate.
President Donald Trump - who previous year launched a missile strike on a regime base after another alleged chemical attack - warned after the latest accusations that there would be a "big price to pay".
French President Emmanuel Macron said that France had joined the USA and Britain to target "the capacities of the Syrian regime to produce and use chemical weapons".
In response to Haley's push for a vote on Tuesday, Nebenzia told the council behind closed doors that he, too, could put his draft to a vote.
"Russia will inevitably veto the USA resolution criticizing Assad, and Washington will use this to justify military strikes", he said.
Ms Haley said the Russian draft would have allowed Russia to choose the investigators and assess the outcome of the investigation. Russia vetoed a USA text, while two Russian-drafted resolutions failed to get a minimum nine votes to pass. "Does any of that sound independent or impartial?"
The US, UK and France have launched military strikes on Syria following the suspected chemical attack by the Assad regime.
"Either way, the United States will respond".
"You do not want to hear the fact that no traces of a chemical attack were found in Douma", Mr Nebenzia said.
Even as the Security Council wrangled over a resolution to confer the Council's authority on the probe, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) announced it was sending a fact-finding mission to Douma, where the chemical weapon attack is said to have taken place.
He accused the United States of introducing the resolution knowing it would not pass so they could use it as a pretext to attack Syria.
"And a significant body of information including intelligence indicates the Syrian regime is responsible for this latest attack". It blamed Islamic State militants for mustard gas use.
Russian Federation rejected the findings on Syria's culpability and vetoed a Western-backed resolution in November that would have renewed the UN-OPCW Joint Investigative Mechanism (JIM).
Mr Trump said the military action was a "combined operation" with the armed forces of the United Kingdom and France.
Mr Nebenzia and Syrian ambassador Bashar Ja'afari said that despite the council's failure to welcome the OPCW fact-finding mission, its investigators are heading to Syria with support from both Russian Federation and Syria.