State television carried footage of the launch of the Khoramshahr missile, which was first displayed at a high-profile military parade on Friday.
On Friday, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani vowed that Iran would boost its ballistic missile capabilities despite U.S. criticism.
The Iranian president said the military power is exclusively aimed at defending the country and the region against aggressors and terrorists, stressing that no one can stop Tehran from developing its conventional armaments.
Iranian President Hassan Rohani responded by saying it would "a great pity" if the deal was "destroyed by rogue newcomers to the world of politics".
It also imposed sanctions on Iran after a ballistic missile test in January.
"Iran has never boosted its military might to invade other countries, but Tehran has developed it for defensive [purposes] and to deter aggressors".
But Trump, who this week described the deal as an "embarrassment", is due to report to the US Congress on October 15 on whether or not he believes that Iran is in compliance.
President Hassan Rouhani said Friday that Iran would strengthen its weapons capabilities and unveiled a new ballistic missile that can carry multiple warheads.
US President Donald Trump addresses the United Nations General Assembly at UN headquarters, September 19, 2017 in New York City. "We seek no one's permission to defend our land".
"We will strengthen our defence and military capabilities. whether you want it or not", Rowhani said, a direct response to Trump's speech at the UN General Assembly this week.
Rouhani on Wednesday called Trump's speech to the United Nations.
Iranian officials have argued that the measure only applies to missiles specifically created to carry nuclear warheads. This rocket has recently been presented at a military parade in Tehran.
Washington has also taken aim at what it says is Tehran's failure to meet expectations that it would play a more stabilizing role in the Middle East.
The US President also accused the country of contributing to instability in Yemen and Syria, something which his Iranian counterpart denied.