A Russian foreign ministry statement demanded the U.S. cut its diplomatic presence in Russia by September to 455 - the same number Moscow has in the United States - in a move sources said could force out hundreds of diplomats.
"Should US authorities take new unilateral actions to reduce the number of Russian diplomats in the United States, a mirror answer will follow", a statement from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation said.
It also blocked access to the USA diplomatic staff to a dacha in Serebryany Bor on the northwestern outskirts of the city and to a warehouse used by the embassy.
"The new sanctions are meant not only to penalize the targeted countries but third parties such as the European enterprises which are collaborating together with Russian Federation in various projects", the analyst said.
The move was Moscow's way of retaliating one day after the U.S. Senate passed a final sanctions bill that targets Russia, Iran and North Korea, sending it to President Trump's desk.
Just hours before Senate Republicans failed to choke the life out of the health care program known as Obamacare - a top domestic priority for the administration - the entire Senate, Democrats and Republicans, voted on imposing new Russian Federation sanctions, effectively tying the President's hands on dealing with that country.
In passing the measure, Congress essentially forced the president to decide between taking a harder stance against Russia or issue a veto amid investigations into ties between his campaign and Russian officials.
The legislation is aimed at punishing Moscow for interfering in the 2016 presidential election and for its military aggression in Ukraine and Syria, where the Kremlin has backed President Bashar Assad.
The move comes the day after the U.S. Congress gave bilateral approval to a new slate of sanctions on Russian Federation over its interference in the 2016 election.
He complained that "it's impossible to endlessly tolerate this kind of insolence towards our country", referring to tougher U.S. sanctions that were backed by the House of Representatives on Tuesday.
"But two key differences here make the Russian Federation case exceptional: the unprecedented interference (which Trump is the only person in Washington incapable of acknowledging) in our election, and the Administration's constant stream of lies about its ties to Russian Federation, which raise legitimate questions about why they want a deal", Finer added.
Russia had greeted Trump's election victory with "euphoria", confident it would usher in a new era of close cooperation and an easing of sanctions, said Angela Stent, director of Georgetown University's Center for Eurasian, Russian and Eastern European Studies.
Russian President Vladimir Putin has retaliated against fresh United States sanctions by telling Washington to cut its diplomatic staff and blocking access to key USA diplomatic sites.
The ministry said the figure was equivalent to the number of Russian diplomatic staff accredited for work in the US.
Relations were already languishing at a post-Cold War low because of the allegations that Russian cyber interference in the election was meant to boost Trump's chances, something Moscow flatly denies.
U.S. President Donald Trump plans to sign a Congressional law restricting his ability to lift sanctions on Russia, the White House said Friday night, in a severe blow to his budding relationship with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
If Mr Trump chooses to veto it, the bill is expected to garner enough support in both chambers to override his veto and pass it into law.
It also warned the USA it would respond in kind if Washington chose to expel any Russian diplomats.
File image of Vladimir Putin and Donald Trump.